The process of data analysis started with predict all available data from various sources, namely interviews, observation, which has been written in the field notes, personal documents, official documents, images, and so on. The data is a lot of, after being read, studied, and ditelah then the next step is data reduction is done by making abstractions. Abstraction is an effort to make a summary of the core, processes and statements that need to be maintained so as to remain in it. The next step is menyusunya in units. The units were then categorized in the next step. The categories are carried out while making coding. The final stage of data analysis is examining the validity of the data .. after the completion of this stage, start now in the process of data interpretation stage sementaramenjadi results substantive theory by using some particular method.
In connection with the description of the process Analisia and interpretation of the data above, it can be explained issues of concern as follows: The basic concept of data analysis, degeneration unit, categorization including pemeriksahan validity of the data, and then concludes with the interpretation of the data.
Basic Concepts Data Analysis.
According to Patton, 1980 (in Lexy J. Moleong 2002: 103) explains that data analysis is the process of arranging the order of the data, mengorganisasikanya into a pattern, category, and description of the basic unit. Meanwhile, according to Taylor, (1975: 79) defines as the process of data analysis detailing the formal effort to find a theme and formulate a hypothesis (idea) as suggested and in an effort to provide assistance and the theme of the hypothesis. If examined, basically the first definition is more focused organizing data, while the second emphasizes the intent and purpose of data analysis. Thus these definitions can be synthesized into: Data analysis process to organize and sort data into patterns, categories and basic description of the unit so that it can be found a theme and can be formulated as a working hypothesis based on the data.
From the description above we may draw the bottom line data analysis intends to first mengorganisasikanm data. The data collected are numerous and consist of field notes and comments investigators, images, photographs, documents, such as reports, biographies, articles, and so on. Job data analysis in this case is organize, sort, categorize, give the code, and mengategorikannya. Organizing and managing the data is aimed at finding a theme and a working hypothesis which eventually promoted to substantive theory.
Akirnya should be noted that the analysis of the data was done in a process.
Means the process of implementation has started since data collection and dikerjakjan intensively, which has left the field. Job analyzing the data requires focusing effort and exertion, researchers thought. In addition to analyzing the data. Researchers also need to be and still need to be steeped in the literature in order to confirm a theory or to menjastifikasikan the new theory that may be discovered.
The description of the degeneration of this unit consists of tipelogi unit and prepare the unit.
1. Tipelogi unit.
Unit or unit is the unit of a social setting. Basically this unit is a tool to smooth the data recording. According to Lofland and Lofland, (! 984) (in Lexy 2002: 190), a unit of social life is a determination in which a person asking the question. Linciln and Guba (1985: 344) was named the unit as the unit of information that serves to determine or define the category.
In connection with that, Patton, (1987: 306-310) distinguishes two types of units:
(1) the type of original and
(2) the type of construct analysis results.
Patton stated that this is the original type using EMIC and anthropological perspective. It is based on the assumption that the social behavior and culture should be studied from the point of view of the inside and the definition of human behavior. Thus, the conceptualization of the unit should be found by analyzing the cognitive processes of people studied, not in terms of entnosentrisme researchers. This approach requires the analysis of verbal categories used by the subject to detailing the complexity of reality into parts. Patton, menyatakn that are fundamentally intended use of the language it is important to give a "name" so as to distinguish with the other by "name" the others anyway. After the "label" is found on what was said by the subject, the next stage is to try to find traits or characteristics that distinguish something with something lain.Untuk the original tipelogi this is key for researchers to give it a name according to what is being thought, felt , and internalized by the subject and background backfire by researchers.
Lincoln and Guba (1985: 345) says that in the first rare degeneration is the unit of analysis should be read and carefully study all types of data that have been collected. After that, keep the units were identified. Researchers put into the index card. Drafting unit and inclusion into the index cards should be understood by others. At this stage of the analysis should not be used to dispose of existing units even though it may be considered irrelevant.
Categorization in this description consists of (1) Functions and principles of categorization and (2) a rare-step categorization described as follows.
1. Funsi and principles of categorization
Categorization means drafting category. No other category is one of a set of heap piles are arranged on the basis of the mind, intuition, opinions, or criteria outlining Guba tertentu.Selanjutnya Linclon and categorization are
(1) categorizing the cards that have been made into sections that are clearly related contents ,
(2) defining the rules that describe the category of the region and that ultimately can be used to specify inclusion in the category of each card and also as a basis for checking the validity of the data, and (3) keep every category that has been compiled to one another megikuti consistent principle ,
2. Steps categorization
The method used in the categorization is based on the comparative analysis method steps outlined above ten rare, which is the last step is the analysis must predict the entire category once again not to get forgotten. Once completed in the analysis, before interpreting the author shall conduct an examination of the data keapsahan, the examination can be done by using data validity checking.
Validity of Data
To avoid mistakes or errors of data that has been collected, is necessary to check the validity of the data. Checking the validity of the data based on criteria deraja trust (crebility) with a triangulation technique, perseverance observation, checking peers (Moleong, 2004).
Triangulation is a technique of checking the validity of the data that is based on something outside of the data for the purpose of checking or as a comparison against existing data (Moleong, 200). Trigulasi used is trigulasi with the source, ie comparing data obserfasi results, the results of student work and interviews on the subject is focused on the application of effective methods of aid in reading.
Perseverance observations were made with the technique of observation are researched, detailed and continuously during the learning process takes place, followed by intensive interviews on the subject in order to avoid data generated from things that are not desirable. Checking peers / colleagues conducted in the form of a discussion about the process and results of the research with the hope to obtain feedback in terms of both methodology and implementation of the action.